Report of Colonel John B. McIntosh’s Operations Around Waynesboro

OFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 27, Part 1 (Gettysburg Campaign) Page 967-968, No. 348. Reports of Colonel John B. McIntosh, Third Pennsylvania Cavalry commanding First Brigade, Second Division.

HDQ US. FIRST BRIG., SECOND DIV., CAVALRY CORPS,

Near Warrenton, VA., August 20, 1863.

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Colonel John McIntosh, shown later in the war as a general.

CAPTAIN: In compliance with orders received I have the honor to submit the following report of the movements of the First Brigade of this division since the battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863:Late in the afternoon of July 4, I received orders from the division general to report with my brigade to Major-General Pleasonton for orders. In accordance with his orders, I placed my brigade on the extreme left of the army, to picket the different roads and to observe the movements of the enemy in that direction. July 5, I received orders from Major-General Pleasonton move my command at once to Emmitsburg, as some of the enemy’s cavalry had gone in that direction, with further instructions that, should the enemy attempt to gain the rear of the army, I must them up to prevent it. In obedience to those orders, I moved my command at once to Emmitsburg, and found that enemy’s cavalry, under General Stuart, had gone through there in the morning, moving toward Frederick, I also ascertained that after proceeding on the road to Frederick as far as Graceham, they turned toward Hagerstown. Hearing during the day that the enemy was on the road leading from Emmitsburg to Waynesborough, I proceeded with my command in that direction, and soon met the enemy’s picket, which I drove in, capturing a dispatch showing the position of both Generals Longstreet’s and Ewell’s corps, which I immediately forwarded to Major-General Meade, and a copy of it to Major-General Pleasonton. I then found that, in order to reach the enemy, it became necessary for me to advance in a deep mountain gorge, where it would be impossible to use either cavalry or artillery to advance force of infantry was in my immediate front, caused me to withdraw my command in front commanding the corps. In answer to my dispatch, I received orders to move my brigade in front of Emmitsburg, and feel the enemy on the different roads to Fairfield, Jake’s Mountain, and Hagerstown, to ascertain his position, and also to find out if he was on the retreat. I proceeded to carry out these instructions, and had been engaged with the enemy about an hour when I received orders from Major-General Pleasonton to move my command to the Sixth Corps, in front of Fairfield, and report to General Neill for service in following up the enemy from that point, which I promptly complied with.

On the morning of the 7th, I moved with my brigade, in advance of General Neill’s column, by the mountain road toward Waynesborough, picking up a number of the enemy’s stragglers. I reached Waynesborough about 2 p. m. of that day, only two hours behind the rebel army, who, on my approach, burned the brigades over the Antietam. I remained with my brigade near Waynesborough, picketing well out toward the enemy, until the morning of the 10th instant, when I received orders from Major-General Smith, who had assumed command, to move with my brigade through Smithsburg and Cavetown, to ascertain if any enemy was in that locality. Finding none, I retraced my steps toward Leitersburg, and 3 miles to the west of it, and about a mile from Antietam Creek, met the enemy’s cavalry, which I drove across that stream, and which I found strongly guarded with cavalry, infantry, and artillery. Having determined the object upon which I was sent, I withdrew my command to Waynesborough. July 12, I received orders from General Neill, who at this time was detached from General Smith’s command, to move in conjunction with his brigade toward Funkstown. I was here met by an aide from Major-General Pleasonton, with orders to move to Boonsborough and report to General Gregg, which I did the same day. My brigade continued with the division until the 19th, when, in obedience to orders, I moved to Purcellville, in rear of the Twelfth Corps, arriving there July 20, when I was ordered to report to Major-General Pleasonton for orders. My orders were to proceed to Hillsborough, to draw my supplies from Harper’s Ferry, and to scout the country on the opposite side of the Shenandoah toward Charlestown. These orders were obeyed, and valuable information sent to corps headquarters. At 3 a. m. July 23, I received orders to move my command at once to Snickersville, relieve a regiment of the Third Division at Snicker’s Gap, and also a regiment of the same division at Ashby’s Gap. I remained at Snickersville until July 26, when I withdrew from the Gaps, and moved through Upperville and Middleburg to Warrenton, and reported to Major -General Pleasonton on the evening of July 27. On July 28, I again reported to General Gregg at Warrenton Junction.

I am, captain, very respectfully,

J. B. McINTOSH, Colonel, Commanding First Cavalry Brigade.

Cap. H. C. WEIR, Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Exploits of the 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry Before The Battle of Gettysburg

Moyer, Henry P. History of the Seventeenth regiment, Pa. volunteer cavalry or one hundred and sixty-second in line of Pa. volunteer regiments, war to supline the rebellion, 1861-1865; by Pennsylvania cavalry. 17th regt., 1862-1865; 1911,

THE MARCH INTO MARYLAND AND PENNSYLVANIA, pg 48-49

As we crossed the boundary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania, one of the guidon carriers of Company G, of our regiment, was stationed at the line making the announcement to each company as they approached, that they were, at that point, entering upon Pennsylvania soil. The boys raised their caps and lustily cheered, again and again, for the old Keystone State and Old Glory.

On June 29, 1863, the regiment encamped for the first time, since it left Harrisburg, on Pennsylvania soil, in the vicinity of Waynesboro, in sight of the homes of many of the members of Company G. A request was made to Colonel Josiah H. Kellogg to permit the men of Company G, to visit their homes during the night, which request was granted, however, only upon condition that every member of the company would be present again at roll call the following morning. Captain L. B. Kurtz commanding the company vouched for the men, and, to the credit of the company, it could be truthfully said that every member of the company was present for duty and answered roll call the next morning. It was in this same camp that, early the following morning, an old Pennsylvania farmer and his daughter drove into our camp with a one horse spring wagon and handed out loaves of bread and cakes, free of charge, saying he and his wife and daughter stayed up all night and baked them for the soldiers. “They are yours,” he continued, “you are welcome to them. I wish I had more to give you.” The boys doffed their caps and thanked the donors. Then someone proposed three cheers for the old farmer, another proposed three cheers for his wife, and still another proposed three cheers for the daughter. It is needless to say that in less time than it takes to tell this little incident, the bread and cakes were all distributed. The old farmer said, if we would remain until next morning, he would come again with more bread and cakes; but, before he left camp, “Boots and Saddles” sounded, and we parted, he no doubt for his home, and the regiment in the direction of Gettysburg where we arrived about four o clock in the afternoon of June 30, 1863.


CROSSING THE POTOMAC, pg 58-59

We crossed the river on pontoons at Edwards Ferry and took up the line of march through Maryland, moving so as to cover the left flank of the army. The country was loyal and men and horses recuperated rapidly. Passing near Frederick City, Md., a luckless spy happened to fall within our clutches. A drumhead court-martial dealt out prompt justice and his body was left hanging to a tree by the road side. A committee of indignant citizens called on General Buford and wanted to know why he was hanged. General Buford informed them that the man was a spy and he was afraid to send him to Washington because he knew the authorities would make him a brigadier General. The committee retired, unanimously voting General Buford a “Northern brute.” The march through Western Maryland was thoroughly enjoyable good roads, frequent streams of water, fine camping grounds, sympathizing people often crowding villages and country towns as we swept on through them. Mails, with letters from home, and newspapers, too, met us and were distributed almost every day. Later in the day June 29th w r e crossed the boundary line into Franklin County, Pa. The men of Company G, of this regiment, commanded by Captain Luther B. Kurtz, were natives of this county, and mostly recruited at or near Waynesboro. A trooper of this company, with guidon, stood at the line while the regiment passed, and each squadron lustily cheered him as we hastened on.

The division crossed the South Mountain on a good highway, along which the enemy s cavalry had preceded us some days. The road at some points had been barricaded by home guards and local troops to retard their progress, but these obstructions had mostly been removed. The command bivouacked on the night of the 29th at the foot of South Mountain, with orders to move at sunrise. The camp, as near as we can remember, was some eight or ten miles east of Waynesboro, the home of Captain L. B. Kurtz and the home of the men of Company G. The captain asked Colonel Kellogg for permission to take his company and spend the night in his native village. The request was novel; the orders under which the command was marching were very exacting. The colonel was a West Pointer and a strict disciplinarian. On the other hand, the sympathies of every officer in the command were with Captain Kurtz and his men. The request was granted and Company G went home for the night, leaving assurances of honor that all would be back at the hour the column would march, and, true to their word and country, they came, and when they reported the next morning, without a man missing or a straggler, they received a warm greeting from their generous, though less fortunate, companions.

 


A RETROSPECT, pg. 379-380

General Buford s Division crossed the Pennsylvania line in Franklin County on the 20th of June Passing over the South Mountain it went into camp near Fairfield for the night, in a region abounding in forage and water for our jaded horses, as well as in supplies of Pennsylvania bread and meat for the wearied men of the command. The days march was uneventful, save in the short but eloquent speeches made by the captains in obedience to orders, and in the responsive and ringing cheers made by the gallant soldiers as they marched by the trooper of Company G, who stood with streaming guidon, on the boundary line of the State, indicating our exit from doubtful Maryland into loyal Pennsylvania.

The restful camp that followed our march over the mountain was memorable only in the departure of Company G on a social visit for the night to their homes, at and near Waynesboro, in the exercise of authority reluctantly given them by Colonel Kellogg, and their return without a man missing by sunrise on the following morning, in fulfillment of their pledge of honor. The day s march had a significance, however, far beyond the comprehension of the toiling officer and soldier of the line. The trained eye and splendid forecast of General Buford, scanned with eager interest the landscape that opened to his view on this mountain highway. Gravely impressed by the importance of impending events, Buford said to the officers surrounding him “within forty-eight hours, the concentration of both armies will take place upon some field within view, and a great battle will be fought.” By the examination of a local map obtained in the neighborhood, the remarkable convergence of broad highways at Gettysburg was first clearly disclosed to the officers in command, and indicated the approximate field of the coming conflict. To this point, under general instructions, Buford hastened and directed his next day s march. It is a remarkable coincidence that on the evening of this day, June 29, General Lee issued his order for the concentration of his army at Cashtown, recalling General Ewell from the Susquehanna. The march of

Buford’s column northward, reported to Lee by his secret service, indicated the advance of the Army of the Potomac in the same direction. This movement precipitated preparations for what was then, as well as subsequently, believed to be the greatest battle of the war.

The advance of all columns was upon Gettysburg on the morning of June 30, save that commanded by General Stuart; General Ewell from the east, General Hill from the north, General Longestreet from the west; from the south, General Buford on the left, General Gregg on the right, covering the capital, and the face of the country from Hanover to Fairfield the Army of the Potomac, under a new commander was moving to strike the Army of Northern Virginia whenever found.


BACK IN PENNSYLVANIA, pg. 396-397

On the night of June 29th, the regiment encamped upon Pennsylvania soil, about eight miles from Waynesboro, almost in sight of the homes of the members of Company G. I heard Colonel Bean, in a public address, make the statement that Captain Kurtz, commanding Company G, asked permission at this time to allow his men to visit their homes during the night, and that this permission was granted upon condition that every member of the company must report for duty again at sunrise the following morning; and that, to the credit of Company G, it could truthfully be said that every member of the company answered roll call the next morning.

First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry

History of the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry: From Its Organization 1774 to November, 1874, printed For The Thoop, By Hallowell & Co, Philadelphia, PA, 1874, Pg 71-74.

On the morning of the twentieth, requisition for ammunition, tents, &c., was made upon the State Government, and promptly complied with, and orders were received to proceed by rail to Gettysburg. After a delay of four hours, transportation was furnished, and in half an hour afterwards the horses, wagons, equipments and men were in the cars. Much to the regret of the Company, Sergeant Maher was compelled by sickness to return to Philadelphia.

The Troop reached Gettysburg at 4 o’clock the next morning, and immediately disembarked, in the midst of a violent rain storm, and after coffee had been prepared and enjoyed by the men, the Command was mounted and marched into the town, when without much ceremony it quartered itself at the McClellan House; the horses in the stables and the men in the hay loft over them. The Company reported to Major Granville O. Haller, of the Seventh United States Infantry, who was in command of this post at the time. He at once ordered a detail of ten men to reconnoitre in the direction of Chambersburg. This party, under command of Cornet Randall, fell in with some of the enemy and captured three of their number. In the chase preceding the capture, private White’s horse becoming unruly dashed him against a tree and broke his leg.

This reconnoissance established the presence of a large body of the enemy between Williamsport and Chambersburg, and was therefore most valuable in its results. In the afternoon of the same day a rumor reached Gettysburg that a large body of the enemy were advancing from the direction of Fairfield, which lies a few miles south-west of Gettysburg. The remainder of the Troop, under First Sergeant Rogers, was ordered out to reconnoitre.

The detachment was accompanied by Captain Robert Bell and a squad of local cavalry from the Company under his command, as well as by Major Haller. About one mile east of Fairfield the party came up to a body of about one hundred and sixty of the enemy’s mounted infantry, who were scouring the country for forage and plunder of every kind, particularly for horses, of which they were much in need. The main body of the enemy was stationed at a barn in the outskirts of the town, while detachments were out in various directions. Major Haller being satisfied with what he saw, returned in haste to Gettysburg, leaving the command with Captain Bell, who proved himself a brave, intelligent and conscientious soldier. Captain Bell, after taking necessary precautions to avoid surprise from the rear, advanced with care until within a half mile of the town, the command was then ordered to charge, which it did through the town and for more than a mile beyond, driving the enemy rapidly towards the mountain pass. Night coming on the Column was halted, and after a short stop in Fairfield, where it received many marks of kindness and loyal support, it returned to quarters.

Gettysburg at this period was so much exposed that the Troop wagons were sent to Oxford, in the direction of York, so as to avoid their capture in case of a sudden advance of the enemy. At this time privates Conover and Welsh were detailed as orderlies to Major Haller.

On the afternoon of the twenty-second, a detachment was sent out scouting in the direction of Cashtown, which returned at midnight. During the afternoon of the twenty-third, the Troop accompanied by Major Charles McLean Knox of the 9th New York Cavalry, operating with the army of the Potomac, was ordered to move rapidly toward Cashtown on the Chambersburg Turnpike, in order to intercept a body of the enemy which had been seen moving across that road an hour or two before. The Troop reached Cashtown, a distance of eight miles, after a sharp gallop, and it there ascertained that the enemy was some distance above that point near a tavern called Moonshours, in Newman’s Gap of the South Mountain. Darkness coming on, a picket guard of ten men under Sergeant Brown was stationed at Cashtown while the rest of the Command returned to Gettysburg where it arrived after 9 o’clock. The order to unsaddle had hardly been obeyed when ” boots and saddles” was again sounded, and the men remained up all night, momentarily expecting to see their pickets driven in.

Detachments of the Troop patroled all the roads leading in the direction of the enemy, and those remaining at quarters kept their horses, saddled day and night. The wagons having been sent to the rear as before stated, the men were largely dependent upon the patriotic kindness of the citizens of Gettysburg, who were unremitting in their generous attention, and it was never too late or early for them to have ready a meal for the Troopers on their return from scout or picket duty. Their sympathy and kind offices will ever be gratefully remembered.

The Troop was kept on continuous duty, no member obtaining more than four or five hours sleep in the twenty-four, and this rest frequently broken by orders to “saddle up.” For several nights the only rest obtained by the men was that got while lying in front of their horses, bridle in hand, ready to mount at a moments warning.

 

A Confederate Jewish Soldier Recollects His Experience At Monterey Pass During The Confederate Retreat From Gettysburg

L. Leon (Louis) Diary of a Tar Heel Confederate Soldier, Charlotte, N.C.: Stone Publishing Co., 1913. Pg. 38-39(53rd North Carolina Infantry)

July 5 – Left this morning at 5 o’clock. Only marched ten miles to-day. The enemy being in our rear, and skirmishing very strong.

July 6 – Our company was ordered out as skirmishers to-day, as our regular skirmish corps was broken up during the fight. We were the rear of the army, and therefore had a very hard job before us. Fighting all day in falling back we certainly had fun. We were close enough to the enemy to hear their commands. We would hold them in check and give them a few rounds, then fall back again. They would then advance until we would make a stand, fight again, and so it was until we reached Fairfield, six miles from Gettysburg. I don’t think there were many lost on either side in this skirmish. We crossed South Mountain at Monteray Gap. When we came to the above town I pressed into service a citizen’s coat, in this way: We were ordered to rest, and, as usual, we would sit on fences and lay about the road. Some of the boys jumped on an old hog pen. It broke through. They fell in, and, lo and behold, there were boxes of clothing, dresses, shawls, blankets, and, in fact, everything in the line of wearing apparel. I, being a little fellow, crawled through some of the boys’ legs and captured the coat. If the fool citizen would have left his things in his house they would have been safe, but to put it in our way was too much for us to leave behind. We also passed through Waterboro, and Waynesboro, Pa., where the Maryland line commences. We then passed through Latisburg [Leitersburg], and halted in Hagerstown, Md., on the evening of the 7th. We marched yesterday and all night up to 11 o’clock – twenty-four miles.

Confederate Gunner George Neese during the Retreat from Gettysburg to Monterey Pass

George Neese. Three years in the Confederate Horse Artillery, New York and Washington, The Neale Publishing Company, 1911 Pg. 189-193

July 4 — It seems that the great battle is over and from all appearances our forces intend to strike out for Dixie’s fair land. The last reverberations of the deep booming thunder of the artillery that shook the hills around Gettysburg have died away, and the thick sulphury folds of the battle cloud that hung like a canopy over the battle-scarred plain and hugged the bloody crest of Cemetery Hill had dissolved in the soft summer air before General Lee’s army unwound itself from its deadly coil, and like a huge and dangerous serpent glided slowly and defiantly away toward the Potomac.

As soon as the Federal commander was thoroughly convinced that the Confederate forces were withdrawing from his front, he dispatched his cavalry on missions of destruction, to harass our rear and if possible destroy the immense trains of commissary and ordnance stores that were on the road toward the Potomac, by the way of Hagerstown valley.

Vast squadrons of the enemy’s horsemen soon swarmed and hung along our track like hungry vultures, ceaselessly watching for vulnerable points to attack and to seize booty, to the great terror and consternation of quartermasters, clerks, servants, cooks, and teamsters.

The arduous and responsible duty devolving on the Confederate cavalry during the retreat was to guard and defend the retiring trains of wagons and ambulances against all inroads and attempts that the Federal cavalry were liable to make for their capture or destruction, and more especially to strenuously oppose and foil all efforts of the enemy to make any advantageous interposition between General Lee’s army and the Potomac.

At sunrise this morning we moved to Fairfield and remained there until General Ewell’s wagons and ambulances passed, and then we followed them as a rear guard. It was nearly night when the last ambulances passed Fairfield, and at about six o’clock this evening we took up our line of march and followed them, the great caravan moving on the Hagerstown road.

At dark we struck the foot of the Blue Ridge. The road was muddy and slippery, the night dark; rainy, dreary, and dismal. The train moved very slowly, with halts and starts all night. Every time an ambulance wheel struck a rock I heard the pitiful groans of the wounded. Now and then an ominous and inauspicious boom of a Yankee cannon came rolling through the thick darkness from the top of the mountain, and apparently on the road we were on, which unmistakably indicated that the enemy was seriously interfering with the movements of our wagon train.

To-day while we were at Fairfield a drenching thunder-shower passed over, and we went in a stable for shelter during the rain. While we were in there some of our boys played marbles for amusement. Eventually one of the marbles rolled through a crack in the floor, and in order to get it we raised one of the boards in the floor, and under there we found a large store-box full of good, clean, nice bed-clothes, sheets, blankets, counterpanes as white as snow, and beautiful quilts, all of which had been recently hidden from the supposed desecrating hands of prejudged thieving Rebels. We left everything in the box and reported our find to the family that owned the stable, and told them to move their goods to the house and fear no danger of being molested. The family seemed to be astonished at our find and utterly surprised into coyish silence to learn that their goods were safe even when discovered by the dreaded Rebels.

I am almost convinced that a strong sentiment prevails throughout the whole North that the Southern army is composed of thieves and robbers mixed with barbarians and savages, and this malignant spirit is instilled into the populace and encouraged by irresponsible, mean lying newspapers that are published by men who have never been south of Mason and Dixon’s line.

Just yesterday, after the little fight with the Yankee cavalry near Fairfield, a young lady came to me and asked whether our men would allow her to take care of a wounded man that was lying in the road near her father’s bam. I told her to go and take care of as many wounded as she could find, and assured her that our men would not disturb her nor willingly interfere with her humane and laudable mission. I also told her that we did not come to Pennsylvania to make war on women.

July 5 — We were on the march nearly all last night, and most of the time we were mixed up in an ambulance train. Our march was very slow, and seemed more like a dead march than anything we have done in the marching business since the war. The surroundings were about as cheerful as a tomb.

The cannon we heard in the forepart of the night belonged to the Yanks, and they were shelling some of our wagon trains on top of the mountain. This morning just before day Colonel Thockmorton, commanding the Sixth Virginia Cavalry, came down the mountain with his regiment in a rather stirred-up condition, as if something wild and very dangerous had been seen in front. Captain Chew asked Colonel Thockmorton where he was going. He replied, ” Down the mountain. A Yankee battery fired canister into the head of my command, and I am not going up there again until daylight.” Captain Chew then remarked, ” Colonel, my battery was ordered up here to support your regiment, and if you go back, I will too.” Accordingly we went back down the mountain a short distance, fed our horses and waited for day. Immediately after daylight we renewed our march up the mountain, and when we arrived on top the Yankee destroyers had vanished from the scene of their last night’s destructive operations, and all was still and quiet on the mountain highlands. From all accounts and appearances the Yankee force that struck the wagon train on top of the mountain last night was considerable and overwhelming, as we had but few men to protect the train at that point in particular. It was not the train that we were guarding that was destroyed. The Yanks destroyed about ninety wagons, and they did their work well. Some of the wagons were chopped to pieces and others were burned. I saw the debris, such as skillets, frying pans, camp kettles, and all sorts of camp furniture scattered all along the road.

I made a little tour of inspection this morning where the Yankee raiders attacked the wagon train last night, merely to see whether I could find any evidence or trace of the resistance our few wagon train guards offered to the overwhelming force of Yankee cavalry that swept along the road. I found very few battle scars or marks on the trees and bushes, but behind a rock in a thick clump of trees lay one of our sharpshooters, still and silent in the bivouac of the dead, and no earthly reveille will ever wake him again. He was shot through the brain, and no doubt was killed by his adversary firing at the flash of the sharpshooter’s gun, which still lay by the dead body and pointed to the front.

After we were on the summit of the mountain about two hours we went down a mile on the Emmitsburg road on picket. We had about five hundred infantry of McLaw’s division with us for support. The infantrymen threw up breastworks along the front of our position. We remained on picket all day, and this evening we moved back a mile and camped at Monterey Springs on the summit of the Blue Ridge, sixteen miles, east of Hagerstown. General Longstreet’s infantry came up the Emmitsburg road this evening.

 

 

CORPORAL JAMES A. McGALLIARD, CO “B”, 54TH NORTH CAROLINA INFANTRY

This letter was recently for sale at the Horse Soldier and if our institution could afford it, we would buy this. The Horse Soldier translated the text on their website.

Dated “Williams Port VA/ July the 10th 1863”

Page One: “My Dear wife: Thank god I am well and have the time to write you a few lines which will inform you that I am well and hoping this letter many Reach you and find you and the children well I have more newse than I can write I am at this time on the patomoc River near Williamsport we have bin into mereland and in another fight we give the Yankees a goodwhipping hit [it] was the cavalry we fought tha undertook to capture our wagon train But we whipped them owt we was then sent to this side of the river to guard some wagins on this side where we are today our main army has bin to Gettysburg Pencilvania and has had one of severest Battles of the war The first two days of the fite we Run Them Back fews mile and took one of there breastworks But our army was so cut up we had fall Back The next day General Lee ordered the Senter to Retreate To a Certan point in great confution in order to draw them out wich did and longStreet and A.P Hill closed in on ther Rear and give Thim fits We got 5 or 10 Thousand prisoner The los on both sides is powerful The Report is we killed 5 to 1 lonStreet whipped Them again at South Mountain and are fiting in that direction at this time I have heard cannons ever Sense Sevn this morning we have Bin Blest I with great luck By Being sent Back from Winchester with prisoner we mist Being in all those hard fights and we thank god for hit Some companies went in to the fite with 30 or 40 men come out with 6 unhurt the lies of wounded men I never saw before Lieutanant Conly is wonded John Sargent is wonded shot in the Brest we got four wonded in our company Noah Biggerstaff is one of the four Leiuteant conly was in the big fit he had get to be Capt of the 22 Regt I heard from Conly the two first days of the fite he was not hurte But I Ihaven’t heard from sense I am afraid he is killed or wonded I am in hopes tha will send us to Richmond with prisoner again There is Eight Thousand here to be sent By Some dy.

Page Two: I hear General Lee says if his men will stick to him 6 days he will tell them the best newse that tha [y] ever heard I do hope and pray hit may Be So we have captured Sense we left FredericksBurg some 4 Thousan prisoners Be sides a variety of other stuf such as lither comasary stores and the like I think if we meet with noit defeat the war will stop by fall at least I hope So hit is powerful to think of the men we are loosing Cob Avery was killed in the Battle of gettysBurge he was acting Brigader Gen of our Brigade Len Hoke was wonded at FredericksBurge The last letter I got from you was wrot the 20- June the one Jim dueks wife sent a peace in I think I will get one when our mail comes up again I want to hear from you Mity bad tell James dueks james is on the road to us and will be here today I heard from him last nite By Alford miers I sti pe in very good spirits and I hope to live to get home to you and if I can it is all I want I am still trying to serve god the Best I can I hop if I never see you again on Earth to meet you where we’ll hurt no more you mustlet me no how your are getting along and send me all the newse you can I love to hear any knd of newse from home let me no if little Billys hand has got well ytet or not tell all the children ther papay wants to see them mity bad I have nearly forgot how tha little thngs looks I can See Bud plainer than any of them its fills my heart so full when I begin to think of the poor little things left dependent on the world and me a wayhere anse the lord noes whether I will get Back or not and if I don’t my god what become of them of them hit nearly Breaks my heart my dearwife you must for me ask god to let me live to Return to my home I wll have to close may the lord bless you and save you in heaven is the prayer of your humble husband James A. Mc Galliard/ To M. E. Mc Galliard.

Jacob Hoke Writes About the Great Night Battle

Jacob Hoke. The Great Invasion of 1863; or General Lee in Pennsylvania, W. J. Shuey Publications Dayton OH, 1887. Pg. 451-453

On this same day (Saturday, 4th,) Kilpatrick’s cavalry division, reinforced by Huey’s brigade, of Gregg’s division, moved from Emmittsburg up to Monterey Pass, with the purpose of striking the enemy’s line. The following thrilling and graphic account of the terrific night attack by that bold and intrepid leader, has been furnished me by Dr. H. G. Chritzman, who was connected with Huey’s brigade. So far as I am aware no account of that affair has ever before been published. Dr. Chritzman, says:

“July 4th, we moved to Emmittsburg and reported to Kilpatrick; moved same evening to intercept Swell’s wagon-train which was reported to be near Monterey Springs. The brigade moved rapidly up the mountain road, striking Ewell’s wagon-train about three o’clock in the morning of July 5th, in the midst of a furious thunder storm, whilst on its retreat from Gettysburg.

‘At once there rose so wild a yell

Within that dark and narrow dell,

As if all the fiends from heaven that fell,

Had pealed the banner cry of hell.’

This, combined with the Plutonic darkness made it one of the nights long to be remembered. When we came up with the wagon – train, Federal and Confederate cavalry, wagons, ambulances, drivers and mules became a confused mass of pursued and pursuing demons whose shouts and carbine shots, mingled with the lightning’s red glare and the thunder’s crash, made it appear as if we were in the infernal regions. Especially so as the cries of the wounded often rose high above the din of the conflicting forces.

“Frequently a driver would be shot or leave his mule team, when the unrestrained animals would rush wildly down the narrow road, and in many instances the wagons with the mules attached would be found at daylight at the bottom of some deep ravine crushed to pieces, with the mules dead or dying. It was a fearful ride suiting well the fearless intrepidity of our daring commander. A Confederate brigade, then a long train of wagons and ambulances, then our brigade in the center, with Ewell’s corps in our rear, going down that narrow mountain road upon the principle of the devil take the hindmost,—you have Kilpatrick’s dash across Monterey Pass.

14th Virginia Cavalry Raiding Horses at Monterey Pass

From the Richmond Dispatch, April 5, 1896, Diary of Lieutenant Hermann Schuricht, of the Fourteenth Virginia Cavalry.

June 18th.—My company on picket, and I am officer of the day. Nothing of the enemy.

June 19th.—The company was ordered to Waynesborough, Pa., to capture horses and cattle in the neighborhood for our army. A powerful thunder-storm surprised us at night, and we took refuge on a large farm. The proprietor was obliged to furnish us with rations for ourselves and our horses.

June 20th.—We succeeded in capturing a number of horses and some cattle. At noon we came to the farm of an old Pennsylvania German. He was scared to death at catching sight of us, and shouted ‘O mein Gott, die rebels!’ I soon reassured him, telling him that no harm should result to him if he furnished us with a dinner and rations for our horses, and we were well cared for. A Federal cavalry regiment passed in sight of the place, fortunately not discovering our presence, and I concluded to march with my command to Lestersburg, Md., where the citizens furnished us with supper. We camped for the night in an open field, midway between Lestersburg and Hagerstown.

June 21st and 22d.—The 14th Virginia Cavalry Regiment readvanced towards Chambersburg, Pa., but Co. D, in charge of Captain Moorman and Major Bryan, of Rhodes’ Division, was detailed to proceed to the South Mountain to capture horses, of which about 2,000 had been taken there by farmers and industrial establishments to hiding places. We again passed through Lestersburg and then entered on the mountain region. It proved to be a very dangerous section for cavalry movements. At 1 o’clock at night we came to Use’s Iron-Works. Mr. Use, upon demand, furnished provisions, but as we discovered on the following days, secretly informed the farmers and troops of our approach.

The 9th New York Cavalry At Monterey Pass Before Gettysburg

Cheney, Newel. History of the ninth regiment, New York volunteer cavalry War of 1861 to 1865, Poland Center, N. Y. I90I. Pg. 100-102

Sunday June 28, Buford’s Division crossed the Catoctin range to Jefferson and marched thence to Middletown. The 9th N. Y. moved on about a mile beyond Middletown for picket duty that night. After entering Maryland some of the people along the route of march showed much enthusiastic loyalty in waving the Stars and Stripes and bringing refreshments to the men. At a picket post of the regiment at Miller’s Mill west of Middletown eleven Confederate prisoners captured at Hagerstown were brought in. A citizen from Frederick City also passed. He had been with his horses away north of Chambersburg, Pa., to keep them from the Confederates. He reported that he had seen nearly the whole of the Confederate army pass through Chambersburg. Ewell’s Corps was in the advance, Hill’s corps next, then Longstreet’s. He counted eighty-six pieces of artillery. The Confederates were taking all available supplies. They crossed the Potomac at Williamsport.

June 29, Gamble’s and Devin’s brigades of Buford’s Division marched westwardly across South Mountain to Boonsboro, thence north through Cavetown to Smithburg, thence east over South Mountain by way of Monterey Springs and bivouacked on the eastern slope of the mountain, making a long march of about forty miles. Merritt’s brigade of Buford’s Division moved from Middletown to Mechanicstown. It was learned that a large Confederate column of infantry had passed through Boonsboro about a week before and moved by way of Waynesboro toward Chambersburg. As the long column of Buford’s brigades passed, the people were enthusiastic in their greetings and expressions of satisfaction at the approach of the Union army. The first large National flag was displayed at the little village of Mount Pleasant north of Boonsboro, Md. It was spread out in front of a dwelling as if just brought from concealment. One old man stood beside the road near Monterey Springs, with his hat off and tears streaming down his face. As the column passed the men cheered him heartily. At Monterey, some of the officers called and got a well served supper of bread, butter, ham, apple-butter and coffee.

Tuesday, June 30. Buford’s column moved early, the men being called up at 3 a. m., intending to take the road by way of Fairfield, but encountering a strong outpost of the enemy who was in considerable force at Fairfield, and not wishing to bring on a battle there, Buford turned to the right toward Emmittsburg where the I Corps was found and
thence took the Emmittsburg road to Gettysburg.

Colonel John McIntosh’s Cavalry Brigade at Monterey Pass

War of the Rebellion: Serial 045, N. C., VA., W. VA., MD., PA., ETC. Chapter XXXIX. Pg. 560-561

ON THE WAYNESBOROUGH PIKE, July 6, 1863.

[General HOWARD:]

GENERAL: I am now engaging the enemy’s rear guard. They have been passing on to this pike since yesterday. Lee’s whole army passed through Fountain Dale and Monterey yesterday. I believe Sedgwick is at Fairfield now. I think they are making for Hagerstown.

J. B. McINTOSH.

P. S. -My camp is in front of Emmitsburg, on the Fairfield road.


ON THE WAYNESBOROUGH ROAD, July 6, 1863-3. 45 p. m.

Colonel A. J. ALEXANDER,

Assistant Adjutant-General:

COLONEL: I have advanced on the Waynesborough road about 2 miles from the point where the road diverges, one going to Fairfield, the other to Waynesborough. I engaged the enemy for two hours, until they moved out a strong infantry force against me. I was in sight of their train. It is moving off in the direction of Waynesborough. The enemy had formed two lines or infantry, and were busy forming a third whilst I engaged their rear guard.

The bulk of Lee’s army passed on to the Waynesborough pike yesterday from Fairfield. They passed through Fountain Dale and Monterey, and, I think, were moving to Hagerstown.

I will at once attempt to carry out your order, just received, to communicate with General Sedgwick, in front of Fairfield. The Eleventh Corps has arrived at Emmitsburg.

Very respectfully,

J. B. McINTOSH,

Colonel, Commanding Brigade.

P. S. -Lee’s force is reported to be 80, 000; but that must be taken for what it is worth, as my information comes from a citizen.